Health care worker giving a young pregnant woman a birthing kit, in BangladeshSee more

A health care worker in Bangladesh gives a young pregnant woman a birthing kit for a safer delivery. It contains a sterile razor to cut the cord, a sterile plastic sheet to place under the birth area, and other simple, sanitary items - all which help save lives. The health care worker asks the young woman to come back with her baby for a post natal check after the birth. At that time, she asks the mom if she wants to have another child right away or if she wants to space her children. Usually the mom wants to wait, and gladly accepts contraception. The worker is prepared to give her pills, an injection, implants, or an IUD. The mother is instructed to come back if the baby shows signs of diarrhea or pneumonia, common infant killers.

50 years ago, here in the USA, I was given the same option to space my births after the birth of my first baby. I gladly accepted contraceptive pills (which was new to me) .. Karen Gaia

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Mother Caring for 7 Billion doc

If we don't halt population growth with justice and compassion, it will be done for us by nature, brutally and without pity - and will leave a ravaged world. Nobel Laureate Dr. Henry W. Kendall

Population & Sustainability News Digest

September 20, 2014

Articles Worth Reading (not yet summarized)

Here are some fairly important articles that need summarizing, but no one has gotten around to them; and so I am listing them here. If you are interested in summarizing articles for WOA, click on the red arrow to get to the login/register screen.

  • Overpopulation and the 10 Billion Person Question doclink

    My father fears for the future of our planet, infested as it will be by 10 billion people by the end of this century. ‘We will need a war to wipe them out, or famine, or both,' he says. Many of the conservationists of his generation and mine agree; this Malthusian outlook is quite common. We need to start by eating less beef and dairy, drinking less grog, bubble-water and cappuccinos. All these things have an enormous environmental fo... September 08, 2014, ABC Radio National   By: Bruce Edgerton


  • Fixing Climate Change May Add No Costs, Report Says doclink

    In decades of public debate about global warming, one assumption has been accepted by virtually all factions: that tackling it would necessarily be costly. But a new report casts doubt on that idea, declaring that the necessary fixes could wind up being effectively free. A global commission will announce its finding on Tuesday that an ambitious series of measures to limit emissions would cost $4 trillion or so over the next 15 years, an increase... September 16, 2014, New York Times   By: Justin Gillis


  • U.S.: Birth Control Pills Should Be Available Over the Counter, but That's No Substitute for Contraceptive Coverage doclink

    In recent weeks, some opponents of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) contraceptive coverage guarantee have promoted the idea that oral contraceptive pills should be available to adult women without a prescription. Sens. Kelly Ayotte (R-NH) and Mitch McConnell (R-KY), for example, recently introduced the so-called Preserving Religious Freedom and a Woman's Access to Contraception Act, a bill that would urge the Food and Drug Administration (FDA... September 11, 2014, Guttmacher Institute   By: Adam Sonfield and Sneha Barot


  • Africa's Dividing Farmlands a Threat to Food Security doclink

    When Kiprui Kibet pictures his future as a maize farmer in the fertile Uasin Gishu county in Kenya's Rift Valley region, all he sees is the ever-decreasing plot of land that he has to farm on. "I used to farm on 40 hectares but now I only have 0.8 hectares. My father had 10 sons and we all wanted to own a piece of the farmland. Subdivision … ate into the actual farmland," Kibet tells IPS. "From 3,200 bags a harvest, now I only produce... September 10, 2014, IPS Inter Press Service   By: Miriam Gathigah


  • Pacific Tuna Stocks on the Brink of Disaster, Warns Outgoing Fisheries Head Glenn Hurry doclink

    Professor Glenn Hurry said bluefin and bigeye tuna should no longer be harvested, as stocks were dangerously depleted. He also warned "serious action" needed to be taken to reduce the yellowfin tuna catch. "Yellowfin tuna's down to about 38 per cent of its original spawning biomass," said Professor Hurry, the outgoing executive director of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC). "Bigeye tuna's down now to about 16 per cen... September 02, 2014, ABC   By: Dominique Schwartz and Greg Wilesmith


  • Pakistan's Largest City Thirsts for Water as Growing Population Strains Resources doclink

    On the outskirts of the slums of Pakistan's biggest city, protesters burning tires and throwing stones have what sounds like a simple demand: They want water at least once a week. But that's anything but in Karachi, where people go days without getting water from city trucks, sometimes forcing them to use groundwater contaminated with salt. A recent drought has only made the problem worse. And as the city of roughly 18 million people rapidly gro... August 24, 2014, Huffington Post   By: Adil Jawad


  • 10 Reasons Why Investing in Women and Girls is So Vital doclink

    Did you know women and girls make up half of the world's population? Duh :) Did you know women and girls represent the majority of the world's poor? Did you know 70% of the 1 billion poorest people are female? I didn't know about the harsh reality that faces many women and girls until I started doing my research. I was devastated to learn that women and girls all over the world are held back simply because of their gender. They are dispro... July 09, 2014, Global Citizen   By: Leticia Pfeffer


  • Limits to Growth was Right. New Research Shows We're Nearing Collapse doclink

    The 1972 book Limits to Growth, which predicted our civilisation would probably collapse some time this century, has been criticised as doomsday fantasy since it was published. Back in 2002, self-styled environmental expert Bjorn Lomborg consigned it to the "dustbin of history". It doesn't belong there. Research from the University of Melbourne has found the book's forecasts are accurate, 40 years on. If we continue to track in line with... September 01, 2014, Guardian   By: Graham Turner and Cathy Alexander

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World's Top Problem is Overpopulation, Not Climate

October 04, 2013   By: Paul B. Farrell

Note: here is another older article well worth repeating.

Robert Laughlin says: "Humans have already triggered the sixth great period of species extinction ... "We face self-destruction, and we can't blame it on the great American conspiracy of climate-science deniers, Big Oil, the Koch Bros, the Chamber of Commerce and Congress" because we are the cause. We keep buying cars, jet rides, and large homes to heat and cool. We keep buying and investing in fossil fuels, and we keep making more babies, forever in denial of the unsustainability of perpetual economic growth on a planet of rapidly diminishing resources.

Humans are the new dinosaurs. We have scheduled our own extinction.

The U.N.'s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change with nearly 2,000 elite scientists has updated us with technical reports every five or six years since 1988. But they're looking at the wrong problems. As problem solvers, the U.N.'s climate scientists aren't much different than ExxonMobil's CEO Rex Tillerson. He admits climate change is real, but he believes it's just an "engineering problem and there will be an engineering solution." He has faith that humans will “adapt to a sea-level rise." After all, humans “have spent our entire existence adapting. We'll adapt."

Earth's real problem is too many babies ... but we won't admit it

The problem is not climate science deniers. We are in denial about our biggest problem ... population growth. We produce 75 million new babies per year, yet our leaders, investors, billionaires, and the 99% are closet deniers. Even scientists are science deniers. U.N. scientists know (or should know) that overpopulation is the real problem. But if they do, they avoid mentioning it - looking instead for solutions to reducing the impact of global warming. It is not the dependent variables in their climate-change equation, but population growth that drives the problem.

* Scientific American says global population growth is “the most overlooked and essential strategy for achieving long-term balance with the environment."

* In “The Last Taboo," Mother Jones columnist Julia Whitty said: “What unites the Vatican, lefties, conservatives and scientists in a conspiracy of silence? Population." This hot-button issue ignites powerful reactions. So politicians won't touch it. Nor will U.N.'s world leaders. Even if it's killing us."

* Five years ago billionaire philanthropists met secretly in Manhattan: Gates, Buffett, Rockefeller, Soros, Bloomberg, Turner, Oprah and others. Each took 15 minutes to present their favorite cause. Asked what was the “umbrella cause?" Answer: Overpopulation, said the billionaires.

* Jeremy Grantham's investment firm manages about $110 billion in assets. He says ," We don't need more Big Ag, we need fewer small mouths to feed.

Perhaps we fear that the world's biggest problem has no solution!

Bill Gates wants to cap global population at 8.3 billion. Columbia University's Earth Institute Director Jeff Sachs says even 5 billion is unsustainable. To stop adding more is tough enough. But how do we eliminate more than two billion from today's seven billion? Even worse, it seems that few people are concerned and working on the problem. The topic is taboo, so few even mention it. Not U.N. leaders, scientists or billionaires. All are in denial - a conspiracy of silence that is killing us. Should we assume that wars, pandemics, or starvation will solve the problem and spare us from the sixth great species extinction - Earth's biggest problem, the one almost no one talks about?

Meanwhile, marketing studies show how humans live in denial by telling ourselves we're recyclers who support green technologies. Yet we keep stocking up on carbon polluting products because our economy is built on them.

Is it already too late? Can we stop our own extinction cycle?

“One of the disturbing facts of history is that so many civilizations collapse," warns Jared Diamond, environmental anthropologist and author of the classic “Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed." Diamond detailed the scenario that keeps repeating in history. A society's demise may begin only a decade or two after it reaches its peak population, wealth and power." doclink

U.S.: Texas's Culture Wars Have Created a Public Health Disaster for Women

A Report from the impoverished Rio Grande Valley
May 12 , 2014, New Republic   By: Erica Hellerstein

In 2011 the GOP-controlled Texas legislature slashed $73 million from the state's family-planning budget, leaving approximately 147,000 women without access to affordable preventative health care and shuttering more than 50 clinics statewide. Rep. Wayne Christian, a Republican, said "Of course this is a war on birth control and abortions and everything -- that's what family planning is supposed to be about." A ban was also passed on "abortion affiliates," effecitvely barring all Planned Parenthood health centers from receiving state funding. The legislation is estimated to impact up to 50,000 women, many of them with low incomes.

The state's Latina community is especially impacted. "We are witnessing the dismantling of a safety net that took decades to build and could not easily be recreated even if funding were restored soon," wrote a doctor and three academics in a New England Journal of Medicine article in 2012.

Reeling from accusations of a "war on women," Republican state senators last year proposed adding $100 million for women's health services back into the state's primary-care program. But advocates say it's too little, too late. "It's hard to put back together a system that's been dismantled," said Sarah Wheat, vice president for community affairs for Planned Parenthood of Greater Texas.

In the impoverished Rio Grande Valley a million-plus residents living in the overwhelmingly Latino area were seriously impacted. Nine of the valley's 32 state-funded family planning clinics have shut down, while others reduced services and raised fees, according to a joint report from the Center for Reproductive Rights and National Latina Institute for Reproductive Health. Before the cuts, basic reproductive services like Pap tests, breast exams, contraceptive services and counseling, and STI testing, were available at clinics for little to no cost. But now Texas women are seeing higher costs, and fewer services. From 2010 to 2012, the number of women in the valley getting family-planning services at clinics funded by the Texas Department of State Health Services plummeted by 72%.

According to an analysis by the state's nonpartisan Legislative Budget Board, the cuts could result in more than 20,500 additional unplanned births, costing Medicaid more than $230 million.

In the Rio Grande Valley more than one-third of the population lives in poverty; unemployment is soaring; and nearly one third of the adult population has less than a ninth-grade education. These factors already make it difficult for uninsured residents to access affordable healthcare. Texas has more uninsured adults than any other state in the nation -- six million, or 25% of the population—and the valley's Hidalgo County has the highest rate of uninsured residents living in urban counties in the entire U.S.

Many of the uninsured are in the 2,200 colonias along the border in Texas. These are geographically isolated, unincorporated border communities often lacking in infrastructure like clean water, electricity, sewage systems, and paved roads. The average income in 1994 was $8,899. Some women don't have cars, private transportation is expensive, and public transportation is barely accessible. In Cameron County, the rate of cervical cancer deaths for Latinas is twice the rate for white women, and Latinas living in counties that straddle the Texas-Mexico border are 31% more likely to die of cervical cancer than white Texans, and 26% more likely to die of the disease than other Latinas nationally. Now, with fewer family planning clinics in the state than ever, these numbers are almost certain to rise. "t the early stages cervical cancer is highly treatable. And yet women are dying because they've never had a Pap smear, they've never seen a doctor." doclink

Reproduction and the Carbon Legacies of Individuals

April 2008, Global Environmental Change   By: Paul A. Murlaugh and Michael G. Schlax

Note: This is an older article, but well worth repeating.

There has been relatively little emphasis on the environmental consequences of the reproductive choices of an individual person. In the United States each child adds about 9441 metric tons of carbon dioxide to the carbon legacy of an average female, which is 5.7 times her lifetime emissions. Should the offspring reproduce, additional impacts could potentially accrue over many future generations. A person's reproductive choices must be considered along with his day-today activities when assessing his ultimate impact on the global environment.

Our basic premise is that a person is responsible for the carbon emissions of his descendants. A mother and father are each responsible for one half of the emissions of their offspring, and 1/4 of the emissions of their grandchildren.

If we integrate the number of genetic units over time, we obtain an estimate of the total number of person years that are traceable to the original parent. If we integrate the product of the number of genetic units and the per-capita rate of carbon emissions over time, we obtain an estimate of the total emissions attributable to the ancestor, or her carbon legacy.

A woman in the United States who adopted the six non-reproductive changes in the table below would save about 486 tons of CO2 emissions during her lifetime, but, if she were to have two children, this would eventually add nearly 40 times that amount of CO2 (18,882 t) to the earth's atmosphere.

CO2 saved
148 Increase car's fuel economy from 20 to 30 mpg 148
147 Reduce miles driven from 231 to 155 per week
121 Replace single-glazed windows with energy-efficient windows
36 Replace ten 75-w incandescent bulbs with 25-w energy-efficient lights
19 Replace old refrigerator with energy-efficient model
17 Recycle newspaper, magazines, glass, plastic, aluminum, and steel cans
* * Reduce number of children by one

* * Constant-emission scenario 9,441
Optimistic scenario 562
Pessimistic scenario 12,730

Lifestyle changes are are also important; we need to do both. Immediate reductions in emissions worldwide are needed to limit the damaging effects of climate change that are already being documented. Such lifestyle changes must propagate through future generations in order to be fully effective, and enormous future benefits can be gained by immediate changes in reproductive behavior.

An extra child born to a woman in the United States ultimately increases her carbon legacy by an amount (9441 metric tons) that is nearly seven times the analagous quantity for a woman in China (1384 tons), but, because of China's enormous population size, its total carbon emissions currently exceed those of the United States.

Ignoring the consequences of reproduction can lead to serious underestimation of an individual's long-term impact on the global environment. doclink

Karen Gaia says: I would stress getting out of your cars if possible. And insulating your house. Look at cities like Amsterdam, for example. People are reluctant to dip below one child families, on average. And smaller families has the unintended consequence of more per capita discretionary income which grows the economy and extends lifespans.

What Women Want

July 13, 2014

What would happen if we could meet the family planning needs of all women in developing countries -- women who don't want to become pregnant, yet who may not have access to contraception? The Guttmacher Institute estimates that this would prevent 54 million unintended pregnancies each year. That in turn would prevent 21 million unplanned births, 26 million abortions (16 million of them unsafe), 7 million miscarriages, 79,000 maternal deaths, and 1.1 million infant deaths. And all that would cost an estimated $4.1 billion per year -- about what the U.S. government spent in Afghanistan every two weeks in 2011. doclink

12 Graphics That Contain Everything You Need to Know About Climate Change

January 01 , 2014, Scientific American   By: David Biello

Climate change is real, it's here and it will be affecting the planet for a long, long time. That's the lesson of the latest iteration of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change‘s state of climate science report, released in its entirety on January 30.

More doclink

Steady State Economy: Enough is Enough

January 30, 2014   By: Rob Dietz

The global economy is growing beyond the capacity of the biosphere. In recent times, environmental scientists have demonstrated convulsive creativity as they deliver this message with increasingly alarming language (too bad economists and politicians are willfully ignoring the alarms to pursue short-term gains). What we need right now is a new economic blueprint that can meet people's needs without undermining the life-support systems of the planet.

That's why Rob Dietz and Dan O'Neill wrote the book Enough Is Enough: Building a Sustainable Economy in a World of Finite Resources. And that's why Tom Bliss has produced and directed a video based on the book. In eighteen minutes, the video reviews the main principles of a sustainable economy and describes how to begin the transition. doclink

Family Planning and Well-Being in Bangladesh

February 2013, Population Reference Bureau

While the average family in Bangladesh today has about four children fewer than their parents' generation, that family has about six times the purchasing power. Using Trendalyzer, this PRB ENGAGE Snapshot examines how fertility and income have changed in Bangladesh, and highlights the role that family planning can play in helping families achieve higher levels of education and in accumulating more wealth.

This short video can be viewed online as well as downloaded for future use. The video can be embedded into PowerPoint and other presentations, as well as used independently as an educational tool. doclink

LA Times - Vatican to Debate Teachings on Divorce, Birth Control, Gay Unions

May 21 , 2014, Los Angeles Times   By: Henry Chu

Soon after his election last year, Pope Francis directed every diocese to survey local attitudes on family and relationships. The survey asked 39 questions -- including whether unmarried couples were living together, whether same-sex unions were legal, how many children were being raised in non-traditional families, and what programs conveyed Catholic teaching on such matters. Vatican expert John Thavis says that this survey will tell the Vatican what it already knows, but has not wanted to acknowledge.

The Vatican will tally and analyze the results, and this fall the Pope will meet with senior clerics to review and debate church teachings that affect the most intimate aspects of people's lives, including contraception, cohabitation, divorce, remarriage, and same-sex unions. Billed as an "extraordinary" assembly of bishops, the gathering could result in new approaches to some of those sensitive topics.

Some analysts say the Pope's Jesuit training has taught him to diversify his information sources and form less centralized decision-making process. Thavis says that instead of bishops just preaching the rules and doctrine down to the faithful, Francis wants more dialogue. "Francis already knows that many Catholics disobey the church's ban on premarital sex and birth control and that some are in gay partnerships. Documenting these changes could strengthen his bid to soften the church's official line and put pressure on bishops inclined to resist. While Western countries show large-scale rejection of Catholic dogma on sex and marriage, little is known of the response in Asia and Africa, where the church has been growing and conservative views are more likely. That could complicate reforms by Francis, who also wants to broaden the input and influence of those growing regions.

At October‘s synod, Bishops will discuss the survey and proposals to deal with the findings. They will then settle on new guidelines at an "ordinary" synod next year. Thus, few expect major changes to Catholic doctrine at the synod this October. The two-step process should give prelates time to reflect and adjust to reforms proposed by Francis, Thavis said. The pope must reconcile the views of ordinary Catholics who desperately want change and those among their leaders who spurn it. "The Pope is the Pope, and I think we can expect that even conservative bishops will listen to what he says," Thavis hopes for a policy that will not cause people to leave the church or reject the synod.

Francis has spoken unequivocally on heterosexual marriage as God's will. Still, reformers find hope in the Pope's new tone. For example, regarding gays he said, "Who am I to judge?" He has also advised against obsessing over "small-minded rules" and contentious subjects such as abortion. Francis has hinted that same-sex and unmarried unions could serve a practical purpose by legally protecting the children. This month an Argentine cathedral baptized the infant daughter of a lesbian couple with Francis' apparent consent. Catherine Pepinster, editor of the Tablet, a Catholic weekly in Britain agrees. "When he was cardinal in Buenos Aires, he really had a go at priests who wouldn't baptize the children of single mothers." So, although Francis almost certainly will seek an end to denying communion to Catholics who have divorced and remarried, his emphasis on pastoral care and compassion could offer local priests a work-around, with greater flexibility to address individual circumstances. The church could "triage" people's spiritual wounds rather than aggravate them.

Francis' global popularity could inflate expectations of the changes he can, or wills to deliver. Disgruntled underlings can ignore or oppose his injunctions. Massimo Faggioli of the University of St. Thomas in Minnesota believes conservative U.S. bishops, appointed mostly by Francis' predecessors, oppose relaxing traditional strictures on marriage and family. "The Catholic Church is not a military dictatorship where, if they don't obey, you can send the army. It's very difficult for a pope to force bishops to do what you want them to do," Faggioli said.

Although the Vatican told bishops to distribute the questionnaire as widely as possible, apparently not all complied. In the U.S., the National Catholic Reporter found that many dioceses posted the survey online for parishioners to fill in, but others did not seem to notify lay people at all. The German bishops reported that many of their parishioners view the church's teaching on sex as "unrealistic," its prohibition on artificial contraception as "incomprehensible;" and its treatment of remarried divorcees as pitiless. Some critics also demand more participation by women in the discussion, so that crucial decisions on marriage, sex and family life are not made exclusively by a group of single, celibate, childless men. doclink

Art says: This does not address the church's cover-up of clergy child abuse, which The PBS documentary program Frontline recently investigated. Those interviewed by Frontline found little improvement by the church on coverup matters since Pope Francis took office, suggesting that expectations of reform under Francis may lead to disappointment.

California: Insurers Must Cover Elective Abortions

August 23 , 2014, ABCnews

State insurance officials have ruled that health insurance companies in California may not refuse to cover the cost of abortions.

Michelle Rouillard, the director of California's Department of Managed Health Care said that the state Constitution and a 1975 state law prohibits them from selling group plans that exclude the procedure. The law in question requires such plans to encompass all "medically necessary" care.

In contrast, the federal Affordable Care Act does not compel employers to provide workers with health insurance that includes abortion coverage,

"Abortion is a basic health care service," Rouillard wrote. "All health plans must treat maternity services and legal abortion neutrally."

Last year two Catholic universities notified employees that they planned to stop paying for elective abortions, but said faculty and staff members could pay for supplemental coverage that would be provided through a third party. Roullaird said her department had "erroneously approved or did not object" to a small number of health insurance policies that excluded abortions. She asked the companies to review their plans to make sure they are in accordance with the new guidance.

Two groups that oppose abortion, the Life Legal Defense Foundation and Alliance Defending Freedom, said that under federal law California cannot force employers to cover elective abortions and that they plan to file a civil rights complaint with the federal government unless the state's previous determination was reinstated. doclink

At Niger's School for Husbands, the Lesson is 'Space Your Children'

August 13, 2014, NPR National Public Radio   By: Marc Silver

Niger is a country that depends on agriculture, but since much of it is a desert, it has only a limited amount of land that can be farmed. This is a problem for a country that has the world's highest birthrate -- more than seven children per woman on average. It's current population will double in 20 years at that rate.

The United Nations Population Fund began the school for husbands program in 2011 to help bring down the birth rate. In different communities, men meet twice a month, under a tree or in an open-air classroom, to talk about maternal health and contraception.

In this society you have to convince the men that it's OK because that's how the decision is going to get made.

Contraception is fairly controversial in Niger so much of the time they talk about child spacing. In Niger, you're a big man if you have a big family, yet this is becoming a huge problem. Even the president talked about it being shameful this month for people to have 20 kids if they're not able to feed them.

The government is going to make contraception available in all the health clinics and get the word out that not only is it OK for women to use contraception but that they should be using contraception. Male condoms, female condoms, IUDs, injections, the pill will be available. In fact they are now available.

Younger men are expecting a smaller family than previous generations. So that change is happening.

There is also a push to have women get married later, not at 12 or 13 or 14 but in their late teens, early 20s. That shortens the period when they would be having children. In one case a girl went to court to stop her family from forcing her to marry her uncle in Nigeria. Ultimately, she was successful.

Infant mortality is going down, so kids are surviving longer. But people don't yet understand that they don't need to have as many kids because most of the kids are now going to survive to adulthood. doclink

U.S.: MTV Public Policy: How 16 and Pregnant Reduced Teen Motherhood

August 14 , 2014, Business Week   By: John Tozzi

In 2008 the rate of unwed births was the highest ever recorded. After 2008 births to unmarried women declined each year, according to new data from the CDC.

The steepest declines in childbearing have been recorded among unmarried black and Hispanic women, narrowing the gap with whites. And children born out of wedlock are increasingly born to partners who share a home.

While most of the declines from 1990 to 2008 could be attributed to better access to effective contraceptives, said Melissa Kearney, an economics professor at the University of Maryland, she credits MTV's reality show 16 and Pregnant and its spinoffs for the sharp drop in births in the years after 2008.

Kearney's and Phillip Levine's research showed how the narratives of hard lives of young mothers prompted Google searches and tweets about birth control or abortion and accounted for as much as one-third of the overall drop in teen births in the year and a half after its debut. High unemployment also contributed to the decline.

According to Kearney's research, a hit TV show dwarfs the influence of pretty much all the public policy that could affect teen birth rates. Changes to welfare, Medicaid coverage for contraception, sex ed or abstinence curriculums, access to abortion -- all play "a very, very small role in affecting aggregate rates" of unmarried births".

The CDC's data also shows decreases in unmarried births since 2007 for women of every age group younger than 35.

Since the 1990s, women have been delaying childbirth as they see greater economic opportunity -- better access to education and higher-paying jobs, Kearney says.

Teens, in particular, are staying childless by using contraception and having less sex. "The reductions in teen birth rates in particular are not driven by an increased reliance on abortion," Kearney says.

However, in populations with the least economic opportunities, "The proportion of births .. that are outside of marriage remains staggeringly high," Kearney says. doclink

Iran Bans Permanent Contraception to Boost Population Growth

Parliament prohibits vasectomies and other lasting birth control measures after Ayatollah Ali Khamenei calls for more babies
August 11, 2014, Mail and Guardian

Iran's supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has called for more babies to be born and.parliament has voted to ban permanent forms of contraception. Khamenei's decree in May called for the ban in order to "strengthen national identity" and counter "undesirable aspects of western lifestyles".

The bill also bans the advertising of birth control in a country where condoms had been widely available and family planning considered entirely normal.

Reformists see the law as part of a drive by conservatives to keep Iran's highly educated female population in traditional roles as wives and mothers. Health advocates fear an increase in illegal abortions. Abortion is legal in Iran if the mother is in danger or if the foetus is diagnosed with certain defects.

In the 1980s, Iran offered incentives to encourage families to have more children, but that was reversed in the late 1980s, amid concerns that the rapid population growth could hobble the economy and drain resources. Subsequently the birth rate fell to 1.6 children per woman. It is projected that, at that rate, the population of more than 75 million would fall to 31 million by 2094, and 47% of Iranians would be above the age of 60. doclink

Niger: Population Explosion

Runaway birth rates are a disaster
August 16 , 2014, Economist

A woman in southern Niger has 8 children, 3 of them triplets and her babies scream for food. "If they cry and I have nothing to give them, then I must let them cry," she says, her children suffering from malnutrition, lacking the energy to shake the flies from their faces. It is a common picture in west Africa's largest country.

The UN's Human Development Index places Niger at the bottom of the list in terms of poverty. Most inhabitants grow subsistence crops on small plots of dusty, infertile land. An estimated 2.5 million people out of a total of 17 million have no secure source of food. In 2012, harvests failed and almost a quarter of Niger's population was said to be going hungry.

This problem is compounded by high fertility rates. Niger has an average of 7.6 children per woman - the highest in the world. Poverty, ignorance and poor access to contraception are contributing factors, in addition to cultural factors. Many men are polygamous, and local doctors note that the wives often try to prove their value by outdoing each other in child births. Niger's population will more than triple between now and 2050.

Modern contraceptive use went up from 5% to 12% from 2005 to 2012 but this rate is still dismally low by global standards. About 50% of women of child-bearing age use modern contraceptives in Rwanda and Zimbabwe.

Foreign-funded health centres promote long-term options like contraceptive implants. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) runs a "school for husbands" which teaches men, who traditionally tended to obstruct women seeking birth control, about family planning. The schools hope to dispel wild rumours about contraception.

Only a tiny proportion of the government's budget is devoted to family planning. Only about 25% of women express any desire to space out their births. It has been over 20 years since Niger identified population control as a priority in the fight against poverty, yet birth rates are still rising. doclink

Gangplank to a Warm Future

July 28 , 2014, New York Times   By: Anthony R. Ingraffea

The author, Anthony R. Ingraffea, who is a oil and gas engineer who helped develop shale fracking techniques for the Energy Department, assures us that gas is not "clean." Because of leaks of methane, the main component of natural gas, the gas extracted from shale deposits is not a "bridge" to a renewable energy future --l it's a gangplank to more warming and away from clean energy investments.

While methane doesn't last nearly as long as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, one pound of it traps as much heat as at least 72 pounds of carbon dioxide in a 20 year period. Even after a century, it is at least 25 times as powerful as carbon dioxide.

A 2011 study from the National Center for Atmospheric Research concluded that unless leaks can be kept below 2%, gas lacks any climate advantage over coal. The gas and oil industries have been trying to solve the leakage problem for decades.

In addition, drafts of an Energy Department study suggest that there are huge problems finding enough water for fracturing future wells.

We have renewable wind, water, solar and energy-efficiency technology options now. We can scale these quickly and affordably, creating economic growth, jobs and a truly clean energy future to address climate change. Political will is the missing ingredient. Meaningful carbon reduction is impossible so long as the fossil fuel industry is allowed so much influence over our energy policies and regulatory agencies. Policy makers need to listen to the voices of independent scientists while there is still time. doclink

IMF's Blunt Message to Nations: Raise Fossil-Fuel Taxes to Fight Climate Change

Many energy prices in many countries are wrong. They are set at levels that do not reflect environmental damage, notably global warming
August 01 , 2014   By: John H. Cushman Jr.

Countries all over the world, including the United States, should be collecting much higher pollution taxes on fossil fuels -- stiff enough to reflect the long-term cost of global warming's damage, the International Monetary Fund said in a new study.

Not only should countries collect taxes to take into account the future global costs of climate damage that carbon dioxide emissions are expected to cause, but they should also collect taxes to discourage burning fossil fuels because of the more localized smog and soot that make people sick. In addition, they should collect taxes on motor vehicle fuels to help pay for roadway wear and tear, crashes and the like.

The agency estimated that its recommended tax levels would reduce global carbon emissions by 23%, cut fossil fuel related deaths around the world by 63%, and raise average national revenues by 2.6% of gross domestic product (GDP). doclink

Without a Trace

The Sixth Extinction,’ by Elizabeth Kolbert
February 10, 2014, New York Times   By: Al Gore

Science writer Elizabeth Kolbert has come out with a powerful new book, "The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History," in which she reports from the front lines of the violent collision between civilization and our planet's ecosystem: the Andes, the Amazon rain forest, the Great Barrier Reef. She explores the current spasm of plant and animal loss that threatens to eliminate 20 to 50% of all living species on earth within this century.

Many today find it inconceivable that we could possibly be responsible for destroying the integrity of our planet's ecology. For example, we continue to use the world's atmosphere as an open sewer for the daily dumping of more than 90 million tons of gaseous waste. If trends continue, the global temperature will keep rising, triggering "world-altering events," Kolbert writes.

Our oceans, a crucial food source for billions, have become not only warmer but also more acidic than they have been in millions of years. Coral reefs might be the first entire ecosystem to go extinct in the modern era, as Kobert points out.

The last mass extinction occured some 66 million years ago when a six-mile-wide asteroid is thought to have collided with earth, wiping out the dinosaurs. Marine ecosystems essentially collapsed, and about 75% of all plant and animal species disappeared.

E. O. Wilson says the present extinction rate in the tropics is “on the order of 10,000 times greater than the naturally occurring background extinction rate" and will reduce biological diversity to its lowest level since the last great extinction.

Kolbert makes an irrefutable case that what we are doing to cause a sixth mass extinction is clearly wrong. And she makes it clear that doing what is right means accelerating our transition to a more sustainable world. doclink

Want to Change the World? Read This First

June 16, 2014   By: Richard Heinberg

Marvin Harris's magnum opus was the book Cultural Materialism: The Struggle for a Science of Culture (1979). The kernel of Harris's theoretical contribution can be summarized rather briefly.

All human societies consist of three interrelated spheres: first, the infrastructure, which comprises a society's relations to its environment, including its modes of production and reproduction -- think of this primarily as its ways of getting food, energy, and materials; second, the structure, which comprises a society's economic, political, and social relations; and third, the superstructure, which consists of a society's symbolic and ideational aspects, including its religions, arts, rituals, sports and games, and science. Inevitably, these three spheres overlap, but they are also distinct, and it is literally impossible to find a human society that does not feature all three in some permutation.

The structure and superstructure of societies are always conflicted with one another to one degree or another. Battles over distribution of wealth and over ideas are perennial, but truly radical societal change tends to be associated with shifts of infrastructure, such as the Agricultural Revolution 10,000 years ago, and the fossil-fueled Industrial Revolution 200 years ago. In both cases, population levels grew, political and economic relations evolved, and ideas about the world mutated profoundly.

Oil has given us the ability to dramatically increase the rate at which we extract and transform Earth's bounty (via mining machinery, tractors, and powered fishing boats), as well as the ability to transport people and materials at high speed and at little cost. It and the other fossil fuels have also served as feedstocks for greatly expanded chemicals and pharmaceuticals industries, and have enabled a dramatic intensification of agricultural production while reducing the need for field labor. The results of fossil-fueling our infrastructure have included rapid population growth, the ballooning of the middle class, unprecedented levels of urbanization, and the construction of a consumer economy.

Our own society is on the cusp of an enormous infrastructural transformation. Our still-new infrastructural regime based on fossil fuels is already showing signs of winding down. Carbon dioxide, produced in the burning of fossil fuels, is creating a greenhouse effect that is warming the planet. The consequences will be somewhere between severe and cataclysmic. If we continue burning fossil fuels, we're more likely to see a cataclysmic result, which could make continuation of industrial agriculture, and perhaps civilization itself, problematic. We can dramatically curtail fossil fuel consumption to avert catastrophic climate change. Either way, however, our current infrastructure will be a casualty.

Also, once useful fossil energy supply rates begin to falter, this could trigger an unwinding of the global financial system as well as international conflict.

Do you want to change the world? More power to you. Start by identifying your core values—fairness, peace, stability, beauty, resilience, whatever. That's up to you. Figure out what ideas, projects, proposals, or policies further those values, but also fit with the infrastructure that's almost certainly headed our way. Then get to work. There's plenty to do, and lots at stake. doclink

Canada: Ecological Footprint Instrumental in Supreme Court's Ruling

July 18, 2014, Global Footprint Network

In a first for the Ecological Footprint and a native group in Canada, the Supreme Court of Canada supported the Tsilhqot'in Nation's title over 1,900 square kilometers in British Columbia as part of a landmark decision announced in June.

The historic ruling came about a decade after Tsilhqot'in Nation's lawyers called Global Footprint Network to provide an expert study for the case, which centered on clear-cut logging permits granted by the British Columbia government without consulting the native community living on the affected land.

Global Footprint Network's research findings converged to the conclusion that the claimed area had the capacity to support between 100 and 1,000 people - in other words, that this entire area was needed to meet the needs of the smallish nation - given their traditional hunter gatherer lifestyle. Their Footprint was both wide and light, meaning that it required a wide area given the small volume of natural resources harvested per hectare

At the end of the day, First Nations currently fighting legal battles against various major projects that risk to encroach on their lands and disrupt their natural ecosystems (see Enbridge's Northern Gateway pipeline proposal and the Kinder-Morgan proposal) are standing on stronger legal grounds than ever before in their history. The B.C. and federal government are currently negotiating some 100 land claims by native groups across Canada.

More ... doclink

New Video: Funding Female Farmers for a Less Hungry World

August 8, 2014

Women are the backbone of farming. Across the planet, women and girl farmers play a big role in changing the food system and creating a well-nourished world. In fact, according to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), approximately 43 percent of all farmers in the developing world are women. In poor and rich nations alike, they are taking on more defined roles in food and agriculture.

More . . . doclink

Birth Control Methods

July 2014, Bedsider

Visit this interactive website to learn about the various forms of birth control. Which ones are the most effective? Which are hormone free? And other questions are answered. doclink

Earth Overshoot Day

August 19 , 2014, Global Footprint Network

August 19th was Earth Overshoot Day. It is the approximate date that humanity's annual demand on nature exceeds what the Earth can renew this year. In less than 8 months, we have demanded an amount of ecological resources and services equivalent to what Earth can regenerate for all of 2014.

Ecological deficit spending is made possible by depleting stocks of fish, trees and other resources, and accumulating waste such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and oceans. It would take more than 1.5 Earths to provide the biocapacity needed to support humanity's current Ecological Footprint.

It is possible to turn the tide. Global Footprint Network and its partners are supporting governments, financial institutions, and other organizations around the globe in making decisions aligned with ecological reality.

More. See how many Chinas it takes to support China. How many United States to support the United States, etc. doclink

The Cure for Global Warming Lies in the Karoo

August 16, 2014   By: J. H. Reynolds

The buzzword of the day is Global Warming. Most people are concerned and remedies and cures vary as wide as the earth itself. 99% of the cures have one thing in common though. They all attempt to address the symptoms rather than the cause of the problem.

If the world really wants to combat global warming they might learn from the experience of the inhabitants of the semi desert Great Karoo in South Africa. What is happening on a global scale in the world almost exactly matches the scenario people in the Great Karoo faced some fifty and more years ago.

Before human intervention large herds of game traversed the Great Karoo unrestrained. They trekked after available grazing, over many thousands of square kilometers. Although very sparse, edible vegetation emerged after isolated thundershowers, got grazed (utilized) and when herds moved on plants got time to revitalize and repopulate as nature intended.

Modern man had no influence in these vast spaces and the few Bushmen who also roamed the plains fitted in with nature. When the region became inhabited by westerners in numbers the vast herds of game were hunted down and eventually replaced by livestock that had to be controlled by fences and thus diehards who braved the harsh land established farming enterprises.

Farmsteads and towns emerged and with the addition of roads, rail and other means of communication the land became hospitable and the population increased as in the rest of the world. Pressure on land increased and unintentional over exploitation was the result. Even though being a very harsh semi desert environment, it is extremely vulnerable and soon overpopulation symptoms manifested, vegetation degeneration, good edible plants being replaced by thorny and sometimes poisonous plants, lots of bare patches in vegetation leading to soil erosion by wind and water.

Poor plant coverage led to less detainment of the little rain there was, resulting in more frequent droughts, dust storms, habitat depletion, and a general downward spiral of everything dependent on nature. In other words, nature fought back.

And exactly as with global warming today, the inhabitants addressed the symptoms instead of the cause. A sympathetic government gave subsidies to combat soil erosion spending thousands on building dams and erosion schemes to curb uncontained water runoff, ploughing bare patches to introduce new plant populations, and even trucking in extra food to sustain the inflated stock herds. Fortunately the very people who caused the problem over several generations eventually had the wisdom to address the problem instead of the symptoms. A scientific formula was developed to calculate the so-called carrying capacity of almost the entire region resulting in large reductions in stock numbers utilizing available vegetation in symbioses with nature as well as a significant reduction in inhabited farms.

Many hundreds of abandoned farmhouses are proof of this. In small rural towns large school buildings and churches bares testimony to times when too many people tried to forge a living off land obviously not capable of sustaining the numbers.

It must be added that in addition to nature that rebelled against the exploitation, financial reality named capitalism, also played its part in thinning population numbers in that no artificial economic activity of too many people were sustainable. Unfortunately an ignorant government today again ignores the realities of nature and forces great numbers of people on land not capable of sustaining them.

The lesson to be learned from the ‘timid' people cultivating the semi desert region of the Karoo is that the leaders and the scientists of the world can try to address global warming (the symptom) as much as they like, unless the real problem of overpopulation of the planet is addressed any ‘green solution' will only delay the inevitable.

Also learn from these people that the ‘evil' capitalistic system may be the only way to really make an impact on the problem. For this to happen people must accept that the rich of the world will have to buy the only commodity the poor of the world has to sell, namely the excessive multiplication of people numbers. Even though the rich of the world has a far greater ecological footprint than poor nations, the fact remains: If we could half the amount of inhabitants on earth and keep it there, global warming would cease to be a threat. In addition this would go a long way to alleviate poverty in the world. If only the "leaders of the world" would really "lead" the world. doclink

These 10 Seconds Show Just How Big of a Problem Drought Has Become in California

August 15, 2014, Los Angeles Times   By: Kyle Kim

Go here and scroll 2/3 down to see a cool animated gif showing how fast the drought has progressed in California. doclink

These 10 Seconds Show Just How Big of a Problem Drought Has Become in California

August 8, 2014, Los Angeles Times   By: Kyle Kim

Click the link in the headline and scroll down about 2/3 of the way down to see the cool animated gif of California's drought history since 2011. doclink

UNICEF Report: Africa's Population Could Hit 4 Billion By 2100

August 15, 2014, Texas Public Radio

A recent Generation 2030 Africa report from UNICEF estimated that "almost 2 billion babies will be born in Africa in the next 35 years. Over the same period Africa's under-18 population will increase by two thirds, reaching almost 1 billion by mid-century; and close to half of the world population of children will be African by the end of the 21st century."

The report also said that, after previously estimating that "one in every three children in the world living in Africa by 2050" UNICEF now estimated that "by mid-century the continent will be home to around 41 per cent of all of the world's births, 40 per cent of all global under-fives, and 37 per cent of all children (under-18s)."

More from the report:

* Africa's "current population is five times its size in 1950. And the continent's rapid population expansion is set to continue, with its inhabitants doubling from 1.2 billion to 2.4 billion between 2015 and 2050, and eventually reaching 4.2 billion by 2100. Forty percent of the the world's population will live in Africa by 2100.

* The future of humanity is increasingly African. More than half the projected 2.2 billion rise in the world population in 2015-2050 is expected to take place in Africa, even though the continent's population growth rate will slow. On current trends, within 35 years, 1 in every 4 people will be African, rising to 4 in 10 people by the end of the century. Back in 1950, only 9 among 100 of the world's number of inhabitants were African.

• With its inhabitants set to soar, Africa will become increasingly crowded, with its population density projected to increase from 8 persons per square kilometre in 1950 to 39 in 2015 and to about 80 by mid-century.

* Special attention is required for Nigeria, which is the country with the largest increase in absolute numbers of both births and child population.

* The continent could reap the vast potential economic benefits experienced previously in other regions and countries from its changing age structure, with lower dependency ratios and an expanded labour force. But reaping the demographic dividend will heavily depend on investing now in human capital. Supporting Africa's poor families to do this for their children will be paramount if Africa is to take full advantage of its demographic transition in the coming decades.

• However, unless investment in the continent's children is prioritized, the sheer burden of population expansion has the potential to undermine attempts to eradicate poverty through economic growth, and worse, could result in rising poverty and marginalization of many if economic growth were to falter. Without equitable investment in children, prioritizing the poorest and most disadvantaged in the coming decades, Africa also risks repeating the mistakes of other continents and experiencing ever-widening disparities among its children even as its economy prospers, with negative implications for human rights, employment, sustained growth and political stability.

After the report was released, NPR's Melissa Block interviewed David Anthony, chief of the policy advisory unit for UNICEF and lead author of a UNICEF report on population growth projections in Africa.

Fertility rates are declining in Africa; however, the number of women having babies has grown tremendously - and is expected to more than double in the next 35 years. This will result in increasing numbers of births, according to Anthony. Also child mortality has slowed.

Anthony told Melissa Block that unsustainability is not an issue because Africa has a lower population density than many other regions, giving it growing room. It depends much more on how the transition is handled and how Africa invests in its youth. doclink

Karen Gaia says: as has been shown by the examples of many other countries, population density is not a good indicator of sustainability. There are many places in Africa that are not suitable to grow food.

One of the big problems is that the rich countries are already grabbing any land in Africa that may be available to feed their own people. I wouldn't trust any offers of western style agricultural development.

As Joe Bish of Population Media Center points out: Perhaps it should have been "mentioned that the 4+ billion person Africa project by the UN's medium variant is equal to sending every single person currently living in Europe, North America, Latin America, South America, Oceania and.... and... oh yes, India -- sending all those people to join the current African population. I am sure this would do wonders for the African environment and already reeling wildlife"

States Help New Mothers Get Birth Control Through Medicaid : Shots - Health News

July 23, 2014   By: Dana Farrington

New York has just joined five other states in making it easier for women to have access to the kind of family planning options she was seeking without worrying about the price tag. New York has changed its Medicaid reimbursement rules.

This will help the woman in this scenario: she is about to give birth to her second child, and she's not looking to have a third anytime soon. She's planning on breast-feeding so she doesn't want to take birth control pills which conflict with breast feeding. And condoms aren't as error-proof as she'd like. There are a couple of alternatives that are safe, effective and could work for years. She'll need a doctor to get those. But her Medicaid plan won't pay for contraception if she tries to get it while she's still at the hospital.

Medicaid will not reimburse the doctor for delivering a baby and giving a woman an IUD in the same visit. A mom could wait six weeks for a postpartum appointment to get an IUD from Medicaid. But women are much less likely to get contraception at that point

IUDs and implants are not popular with women in the U.S., despite being birth control. With the Affordable Care Act, new insurance plans should fully cover these methods, though there are exceptions.

An IUD is a T-shaped piece of plastic that is put inside the uterus by a health care provider. One type of IUD releases hormones to prevent fertilization and another uses copper to fight off sperm. The kind with hormones can stay put for 3 to 5 years; the one with copper lasts for about 10.

The hormonal implant is a flexible rod about the size of a match that goes just under the skin in the upper arm. It also uses hormones to prevent pregnancy. It works for three years.

If a woman decides she wants to have a baby, she can have a doctor take out the IUD or the implant at any time. doclink

Satanists Demand Religious Exemption From Abortion Restrictions, Cite Hobby Lobby Ruling

July 28, 2014, Think Progress   By: Tara Culp-Ressler

Much debate has been made over the recent Hobby Lobby decision by the Supreme Court' allowed some for-profit companies to claim a religious exemption to Obamacare's contraception mandate.

An interesting point of is held by the Satanic Temple, a faith community that describes itself as facilitating "the communication and mobilization of politically aware Satanists, secularists, and advocates for individual liberty".

The Satanic Temple has launched a new campaign seeking a religious exemption to certain anti-abortion laws that attempt to dissuade women from ending a pregnancy.

The group says they have deeply held beliefs about bodily autonomy and scientific accuracy, and those beliefs are violated by state-level "informed consent" laws that rely on misleading information about abortion risks.

“Because of the respect the Court has given to religious beliefs, and the fact that our our beliefs are based on best available knowledge, we expect that our belief in the illegitimacy of state­ mandated ‘informational' material is enough to exempt us, and those who hold our beliefs, from having to receive them," said a spokesperson for the organization.

The Satanic Temple first made national headlines when members rallied in support of Florida Gov. Rick Scott for approving a bill that allows prayer in public schools, saying they're glad the new policy will allow children to pray to Satan.

“Informed consent" laws, which typically require women to receive biased counseling before being allowed to proceed with an abortion procedure, are now in place in 35 states. Many of those laws require doctors to tell their patients misleading information about abortion's potential link to mental health issues and breast cancer. Some of them put words directly in doctors' mouths, forcing them to refer to the fetus as an “whole, separate, unique, living human being."

All women who share their belief in medical accuracy are encouraging to seek their own exemption from these laws, even if they don't personally identify as Satanists. “Right to Accurate Medical Information" t-shirts are available for purchase. doclink

Most Catholics Reject Teachings on Birth Control Sex Says Vatican

The Vatican blamed its own priests for much of the problem
June 26, 2014, Toronto Star   By: Nicole Winfield

In June this year, the Vatican conceded that most Catholics reject its teachings on sex and contraception as intrusive and irrelevant. This October a debate will be opened on the topic of marriage, sexuality, abortion, and divorce, but core church doctrine isn't expected to change.

The Vatican sent out a 39-point questionnaire seeking input from ordinary Catholics around the world about their understanding of, and adherence to, the church's teaching on sexuality, homosexuality, contraception, marriage and divorce. Thousands of ordinary Catholics, clergy and academics responded.

A working document for the October synod discussions said "A vast majority" of responses stressed that "the moral evaluation of the different methods of birth control is commonly perceived today as an intrusion in the intimate life of the couple and an encroachment on the autonomy of conscience."

“Many responses recommend that for many Catholics the concept of ‘responsible parenthood' encompasses the shared responsibility in conscience to choose the most appropriate method of birth control."

Pope Francis is seeking to redirect his ministers to offer families, and even gays in civil unions, a “new language" that is welcoming and responds to their needs.

The document laments that the media and its own priests have failed to communicate the “positive" aspects of the Vatican's key document banning artificial contraception, the 1968 encyclical Humanae Vitae. And it stresses that what is needed is better pastoral outreach and a “new language" to communicate the complete vision of marriage and family life that the church espouses.

“Some observations inferred that the clergy sometimes feel so unsuited and ill-prepared to treat issues regarding sexuality, fertility and procreation that they often choose to remain silent," the document said.

The document also acknowledged that the church had a credibility problem. “Responses from almost every part of the world frequently refer to the sexual scandals within the church (pedophilia in particular)," it said. “Sex scandals significantly weaken the church's moral credibility." doclink

Ancient Baby Boom Holds a Lesson in Over-population

June 30, 2014, Science Daily   By: Eric Sorensen

Washington State University researchers have found that, from 500 to 1300 A.D., southwestern Native Americans experienced a centuries-long baby boom due to success in farming and food storage. Birth rates likely 'exceeded the highest in the world today,' the researchers write.

The study looks at a century's worth of data on thousands of human remains found at hundreds of sites across the Four Corners region of the Southwest. The stone tools found there reflect an agricultural transition from cutting meat to pounding grain.

Maize, also know as corn, was grown in the region as early as 2000 B.C. But, probably because of low productivity, the population took awhile to realize the benefits, said co-author Tim Kohler, WSU Regents professor of anthropology. However by 400 B.C., the crop provided 80% of the region's calories. Crude birth rates consequently rose, mounting steadily until about 500 A.D.

Around 900 A.D., populations remained high but birth rates began to fluctuate. Then in the mid-1100s one of the largest known droughts in the Southwest occurred. The region likely hit its carrying capacity, with continued population growth and limited resources similar to what Thomas Malthus predicted for the industrial world in 1798.

By 1280 all the farmers had left but birth rates remained high, possibly because of the high amount of conflict. "Why not limit growth?," Kohler said. "Maybe groups needed to be big to protect their villages and fields."

"It was a trap," said Kohler. "A Malthusian trap but also a violence trap." doclink

Karen Gaia said: Malthus never predicted cataclysmic worldwide famine. He predicted regional periodic famine.

Invest in Adolescents and Young People

August 2014, Women Deliver

doclink

U.S.: Be Bold Road Trip - United for Abortion Coverage

August 02, 2014, All Above All

Crossing the country, young people, people of color, and others are standing up against the avalanche of attempts to disenfranchise them, take away abortion coverage and interfere with their personal decision-making.

At each stop, participants will rally with local and national leaders as they learn more about the issues, sign a wall of support, snap selfies, and hear abortion stories that bring the issues to life

The Be Bold Road Trip will finish on Capitol Hill in Washington, DC, in mid-September, to commemorate the anniversary of the Hyde Amendment, which has withheld coverage for abortion services from women insured through the Medicaid program since 1976.

The Be Bold Road Trip will travel 10,000 miles to visit 12 cities for one purpose: to end bans on abortion coverage for low-income women.

The mission of the Be Bold Road Trip is critical to the work of reproductive justice organizations such as The National Latina Institute for Reproductive Health, which says: "Many of our hermanas are denied access to abortion care each year, simply based on their income. We believe that every woman, no matter how much she makes, should be able to get safe and affordable abortion care when she needs it." doclink

Sea Level Rise Causing Huge Increases in “Nuisance Flooding”

Roads that were once under water every 3 years are now under every 3 months.
July 30, 2014, Ars Technica   By: John Timmer

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has compiled data on what it calls "nuisance floods," cases where coastal communities have to deal with flooding as a result of high tides or minor storms.

Over the last 50 years, instances of these floods along the East Coast have gone up by anywhere from 300 to 900%. But there are minor flooding events that are much more common, such as high tides that cause roads and properties to be submerged by salt water. Although these nuisance floods don't cause widespread chaos, they do make areas inaccessible and cause damage to infrastructure that wasn't designed to deal with salt water. These events are often common at certain times of the year or become more common in cycles, as normal high tides interact with changes in the ocean circulation or events like El Niños.

The rates of nuisance floods have increased by 925%. New Jersey and Pennsylvania had rate increases in the 600s, while the nation's capital and San Francisco each saw the frequency rise by about 370%.

Regardless of the location, these nuisance floods will become increasingly significant, and sea level rise has a non-linear effect on their frequency. The reason for this is that the height of high tides is very variable, influenced by things like weather, orbital mechanics, and so on. But that variation is strongly grounded to a mean tide level. doclink

North American Waterfowl Are Newest Casualty of California's Drought

July 30, 2014   By: Matt Weise

As a result of the California drought, millions of migrating birds will be crowded into less habitat, significantly increasing the odds of botulism outbreaks, which spread rapidly and can kill thousands of birds in a matter of days. Officials also are concerned the drought could cause food shortages.

Already, at least 1,700 waterfowl have died at Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge near the Oregon border.

"We've got this perfect storm, if you will. And it's not going to be pretty," Mark Biddlecomb, Western region director of Ducks Unlimited said. "I think we're looking at the probability of a food shortage in addition to a disease outbreak. If they don't go back in excellent condition, they're not going to be breeding like they would normally, and that will affect the entire flyway from the boreal forests of Canada all the way down to Mexico, frankly." doclink

Los Angeles, Las Vegas, Phoenix and Other Cities Headed for Imminent Water Supply Collapse; Wave of Drought Refugees Now Inevitable

June 29, 2014, Natural News   By: Mike Adams

The 600,000 people of Las Vegas, Nevada depends almost universally on one lake - Lake Mead - for their water. That lake has dropped by 50%. Created in 1936, when the Las Vegas population was very tiny, Lake Mead has in recent years dropped by 50% and is receding with alarming speed. It is expected to be "bone dry" in less than 20 years.

Rob Mrowka, a scientist at the Center for Biological Diversity, says: "Truth be told, much of the Western USA is in the same dire situation as Las Vegas. Cities like Los Angeles were founded in the desert, then artificially supplied with water that's literally pumped over a mountain. If those pumps are halted for any reason, Las Vegas immediately reverts to a desert, and the city becomes a death trap for its millions of residents who rapidly discover they are living in a desert." doclink

Bangladesh: Food Security: the Challenge of a Growing Population

June 29, 2014   By: Mahabub Hossain

Bangladesh's progress in reducing population growth, from 3% at independence to about 1.2% now, is laudable. But there are indications that the progress made in fertility reduction has slowed down in recent years. In Chittagong and Sylhet divisions, the total fertility rate is still higher than three, while the national average is 2.3, and it is less than two in Khulna Division.

Each year rice production has to increase by 0.4 million tons to meet the need for staple food for a population that is increasing by 1.8 million every year.

With global warming and climate change, another one-sixth of the land may be submerged with brackish water over the next 40 years due to rising sea levels with adverse impact on soil salinity.

The good news is that, with economic progress people now have capacity to access a diversified diet with intake of less rice and more quality food. The per capita consumption of rice has been declining by almost 1.5 kg per person per year. Japan and South Korea had the same experience during their process of economic development.

However there is the problem of accelerating the growth in the production of non-rice foods, such as pulses, oils, fish and animal products.

Recently women's involvement in agriculture has been growing. Women's labour is an additional resource that can contribute to a substantial increase in the production of quality food. Women are already heavily engaged in homestead-based vegetable and fruit gardening, and subsistence-based poultry and livestock farming. doclink

Karen Gaia says: even if women work in agriculture, will there be enough land to grow the food?

Sea Level Rise Cuts Across Political Divide in Norfolk, Virginia

July 02, 2014, World Resources Institute - WRI   By: Christina Deconcini and C. Forbes Tompkins

The impact of sea-level rise cut across political divides at the "Rising to the Challenge" conference in Norfolk, Virginia, earlier this week. Members of Congress and Virginia mayors from both political parties joined military and state and local officials to discuss the challenges sea level rise presents to the Hampton Roads area, as well as how to promote federal, state and local action.

Coastal communities in southeast Virginia are at the front lines of sea-level rise. Sinking land and rising seas have combined to produce the fastest rates of sea-level rise along the U.S. East Coast for the Hampton Roads region, which is comprised of Virginia Beach, Norfolk, Hampton, and 14 other localities in Southeast Virginia. Sea levels have risen more than 14 inches since 1930.

Sea-level rise also threatens the region's numerous major military facilities, including Naval Base Norfolk, the world's largest naval base and the most vulnerable such base to rising seas, according to Rear Admiral Kevin Slates.

"This is a matter of national security," said the National Security Council's Hill. "It's a mission-readiness issue."

When pressed by panelists on how much sea-level rise the area will confront in the future, Rear Admiral John White explained that we can prevent the worst consequences if we address the root of climate change and “stop putting CO2 in the atmosphere." doclink

Is the Anthropocene a World of Hope Or a World of Hurt?

July 08, 2014, Grist   By: Nathanael Johnson

Anthropocene is a term denoting a new geologic epoch, dominated by human influence. Ethicist Clive Hamilton and the journalist Andrew Revkin, attended a seminar in Washington, D.C., on the Anthropocene. Hamilton was astonished and irritated that some of the participants seemed optimistic, even excited, about the advent of the Anthropocene. He had just written a book, Requiem for a Species, arguing that people squirm away from the bleak reality of climate change.

In a subsequent interview, Clive Hamilton (CH) said, "The only reasonable conclusion is that the world is in for a very bad time indeed."

Andrew Revkin (AR) agreed that the projections are grim. I've never said that this is a good moment in the history of the planet. What I've been trying to say, sometimes perhaps not specifically enough, is that it's possible to have a good trajectory in a turbulent time. You do the best you can, but you have to be realistic about what's possible given what we know about our species." ... "A third of us have had our fossil-fuel party and a third have not even begun. The primacy of energy access in most of the places in the world trumps long-term concerns about what we are going to do about greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere."

CH agrees but says: "In your view things can be good, where I said things can be better than they are otherwise going to be. But I cannot see how, in a world warmed by four degrees, anything can be described as good. So the question is, are we headed for four degrees or not. You have a kind of "oh shit" moment at some point. And you realize the way one used to think about how we could get out of this, how we could somehow muddle through, really won't do any more."

AR: "No one had any idea we were going to have a natural gas revolution and, for better or worse, here it is, reshaping global energy policies." .. "Things could end up worse than we thought, but they could also be better than a lot of scientists think."

CH: "I think when you have a bunch of environmentalists saying "we are optimistic, we think humans can solve this with technology, we are working with businesses to help come up with the solutions," it detracts from the urgency. That whole approach fails to grasp the seriousness of the situation." It stops governments from imposing policies that will facilitate the transition to the low-carbon future.

AR: "Is this a problem of big companies, or a problem of our attachment to cheap fossil energy?" .. "Ban Ki-moon has made the case beautifully for sustainable energy for all. It's just as much a moral imperative for people to have access to energy as it is for us to cut concentrations of greenhouse gases."

CH: "I don't accept this idea that we consumers in the West are irrevocably attached to cheap energy." .. "Some countries in Europe have less than half — a third — of our emissions per person." And countries like Germany have policies that cut emissions. "I think Western consumers can quite easily be weaned off high-polluting energy sources. The more that is done, the easier it is to free up the carbon budget for poor people who desperately need access to energy."

CH We can look at it with open eyes, and allow it to blast away all our utopian imaginings, and say, well, we are in really deep trouble, and it's extremely unlikely that we are going to get out of it unscathed."

AR: "There are paths that take us through that without a crash." ... "Population analyses that show many trajectories. Some are soft-landing trajectories around the year 2300 with 3 billion prosperous people on our planet, not through mass death, but just demographic transitions. I guarantee you that world would be able to deal with the rise in sea levels better than a world of 10 or 12 billion struggling people."

Follow the link in the headline for the entire article. doclink

Invertebrate Numbers Nearly Halve as Human Population Doubles

July 24 , 2014, Phys.org

Invertebrate numbers have dropped by 45% on average over 35 years - the same period in which the human population doubled, according to a study published in Science and led by UCL, Stanford and UCSB.

The decrease in invertebrate numbers is due to two main factors - habitat loss and climate disruption on a global scale.

In the UK alone, scientists noted the areas inhabited by common insects such as beetles, butterflies, bees and wasps saw a 30-60% decline over the last 40 years.

Invertebrates are important for our daily lives. For example insect pollination is required for 75% of all the world's food crops and is estimated to be worth approximately 10% of the economic value of the world's entire food supply. Globally, pollinators appear to be strongly declining in both abundance and diversity.

Native predators perform the useful service of pest control, valued in the US at an estimated $4.5 billion annually.

Insects and vertebrates (birds, for example) are important for cycling nutrients and moving them over long distances, without which the integrity of other ecosystem functions such as plant productivity could be compromised.

Declines in amphibian populations has led to increased algae and the biomass of waste matter, which in turn reduces nitrogen uptake, degrading the water quality.

The the impact the continuing loss of animals, including invertebrates, has on the spread of human disease needs to be better understood as a priority. doclink

Control Population Growth Cure Poverty

July 30 , 2014

While Uganda's poverty rate has decreased, the actual number of people in poverty, particularly with the huge projections of population growth the country is experiencing, will mean a tsunami of people that will overwhelm all the gains.

In 2000, the poverty rate was 33.8% or about 7,500,000 million Ugandans were living below the poverty line. In 2009, the poverty rate dropped to 24.5% with a but with more people, and the total number living below the poverty line was unchanged.

The middle class might be growing and others prospering. But, in education, healthcare, and jobs, Uganda can barely provide them now. Youth unemployment is at 70% or more, and rising.

If Uganda does not stem population growth, it cannot stop the growing tide of people living - and suffering and dying - in poverty.

"Poverty is the worst kind of violence," Gandhi said. doclink

Karen Gaia says: when the author says 'population control' I hope he means voluntary family planning. There are many proven ways to get fertility rates down without coersion, shaming, lying, propaganda, targets, incentives, or disincentives.

SWERUS-C3: First Observations of Methane Release From Arctic Ocean Hydrates

Just a week into the sampling program and SWERUS-C3 scientists have discovered vast methane plumes escaping from the seafloor of the Laptev continental slope. These early glimpses of what may be in store for a warming Arctic Ocean could help scientists project the future releases of the strong greenhouse gas methane from the Arctic Ocean
July 25 , 2014, SWERUS-C3

Note:SWERUS-C3 is a Swedish, Russian and US program investigating climate-cryosphere-carbon interactions in the Arctic Ocean.

Expdetion Chief Scientist Örjan Gustafsson (ITM Stockholm University) writes: "While there has been much speculation about the vulnerability of regular marine hydrates along the continental slopes of the Arctic rim, very few actual observations of methane releases due to collapsing marine hydrates on the Arctic slope have been made." He thinks that the mechanism behind the presence of methane seeps at these depths may have something to do with the "tongue" of relatively warm Atlantic water, presumably recently intruding across the Arctic Ocean at 200-600 m depths."

As this warm Atlantic water, the last remnants of the Gulf Stream, propagates eastward along the upper slope of the East Siberian margin, it may lead to destabilization of methane hydrates on the upper portion of the slope.

SWERUS-C3 scientists could determine the depth from which methane plumes were bubbling up and detect gas seeps in the water column. " Additional observations include the discovery of over 100 new methane seep sites in the shallower waters of the Laptev shelf (at 60-70m depth), a likely consequence of the thawing subsea permafrost. doclink

Karen Gaia says: "the comparative impact of CH4 on climate change is over 20 times greater than CO2 over a 100-year period." See http://epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/ch4.html

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